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How to Choose a Water Heaters

How to Choose a Water Heater – A Complete Guide for Every Household

Your home’s water heater plays a big part in your daily routine. It’s essential for everything, including easy household tasks like a hot shower after a demanding day. It is crucial to select a model that won’t give you any problems in the future because of this.

We have put together this information on water heater selection to assist you in choosing the best model for your requirements. It is helpful for first-time buyers of new water heaters as well as for more seasoned households.

What is a Water Heater and How Does it Work?

Warming your home’s water is the fundamental function of a water heater. This plain-looking device heats and supplies cold water from the mains whenever you wish to take a hot shower or even do your laundry. Remember that you use this water for cleaning and cooking as well. It’s crucial to note that in the UK, water units that obtain their water from public mains are required to abide by water supply rules.

This cylindrical appliance appears normal from the outside, but an inexperienced person may find the internal workings complicated. Every water heater has a heating element that runs on electricity or fuel. The kind of gasoline used can differ depending on the model. Let us first talk about the distinctions between a water heater and a boiler before moving on to the model and fuel kinds.

The Difference Between Boilers and Water Heaters

Now that we know how a water heaters works, it is time to define how water heater and a boiler differ from each other:

  • Electric water heaters: An electric immersion heater that comes into direct contact with the water is what drives the operation of an electric water heater. The boiler is more energy efficient because there are less energy losses in this method. Depending on your needs and available storage space, you can choose from a wide range of electrical hot water boilers, some of which require a water tank. Dry core storage – Electric CPSU boiler – Electric flow boiler Solar-Compatible Electric Boiler – Electric Boiler
  • Gas boiler system: Gas boilers can operate with LPG cylinders that need to be refilled once every hundred years, or they can be directly linked to the gas mains and get a constant supply of fuel. The procedure is straightforward: with the aid of a valve, the gas enters the sealed combustion chamber. The fuel is then burned using an electric ignition device or a permanent pilot. Rising as it approaches the heat exchanger, the heated gas is forced through the coiled pipe. Since there is cold water surrounding the pipe, heat is transmitted to the water as the hot gas passes through it. Lastly, a heat exchanger helps supply hot water to the faucets and radiators.

5 Things to Consider Before You Buy a Water Heater

Size and Capacity

You should take the type and technology of your water heaters into account when sizing it. You must determine how many taps and appliances can utilise hot water at once in order to select the appropriate size for an on-demand water heaters. Take into account the temperature rise and the maximum flow rate of your appliances when answering that.

It’s no secret that families with larger numbers need more hot water. For this reason, your home needs a water heaters that has enough storage capacity to hold enough water. Regarding water heaters capacity, the following suggestions are provided:

  • One bedroom – between 120 and 150 litres
  • Two bedrooms – between 150 and 180 litres
  • Three bedrooms – between 180 and 210 litres
  • Four bedrooms – between 210 and 300 litres
  • Five or more bedrooms – 300 and more litres

Flow rates are typically expressed in litres per minute and are found in the manufacturer’s handbook. Add up the flow rates from all of your appliances to determine the approximate maximum flow rate required for your home.

The difference in temperature between the desired and incoming water is known as temperature rise. The ideal temperature for the majority of home appliances is approximately 49 °C. In the UK, the average temperature of the incoming water is 10°C. As a result, you require a water heaters that can raise the temperature by at least 39 °C. The water heater gets larger in size as the temperature rises.

You should consider the times of day that you and your family consume hot water the most in order to accurately determine the required size of a water heaters with a storage tank. Think about how much water you used at your most during that hour.

A single dishwasher cycle uses about 10 litres, a minute of showering uses about 12 litres, and a load of laundry requires 60 to 70 litres in a single wash. Check your results against the manufacturer’s recommended first-hour rating for your water heater. Look for versions that, within 3 to 6 litres, match your peak hour need.


The range of sizes and fuel types available for water heaters on the market is indicative of their diversity. Water heaters can run on electricity, gas, oil or liquid petroleum gas, depending on the model.

Although gas water heaters are usually less expensive than electric ones, you may occasionally need to schedule a gas safe certificate inspection.


How much fuel a water heater actually burns depends on its efficiency. It is determined by measuring how much hot water is generated for every fuel unit used in a given day. Every modern unit must adhere to standard efficiency ratings that have been certified by the government.

Power and outages

In the event of a power outage, the electric units promptly switch off. You won’t have access to hot water until the power is restored, unless you have some stockpiled. Connecting your water heater to a backup power source is an alternate method.

Gas water heaters don’t require electricity to operate. Gas powers the coil or flame, enabling them to function even in the event of a power loss.


Any heating appliance installation is a significant financial commitment with many moving parts. A water heater’s cost is determined by its kind, size, and brand.

The cost of the gasoline your appliance uses is another important factor to take into account. You may find that some fuel kinds are more cost-effective over time if you compare the varieties that are available in your area. Putting that aside, consider the price of installation or any additional construction needed to install a water heater.

The Types of Water Heaters

It’s time to select the sort of water heater now that you know what to look out for. You may be asking how to choose the best water heater for your home and what the differences are between the various types. What you should know about the different alternatives is as follows:

Tanked water heater

On the market, this kind of water heater is a popular option. The heater preheats the cold mains water to the appropriate temperature. Your heater warms water using either internal electric heating rods or a gas hob, depending on whether it runs on gas or electricity.

You can have a warm bath or shower when you turn on your tap because of the pressure that forces hot water from the tank down.

Tankless water heater

This kind of heater, as you might expect, doesn’t keep the water in a tank. It is delivered right to the tap. An endless supply of hot water is the main benefit of a tankless water heater. Thus, when you turn on your tap to do the dishes, heat is transferred from a heating unit to the water through a heat exchanger.

The heating equipment may consist of electric coils or a gas-fired burner, depending on the sort of fuel you use. You can always have hot water available thanks to the active exchanger’s water circulation system.

Heat pump

The heat pump models differ from the other ones we’ve covered in that they don’t produce heat directly. Rather, they transfer heat between locations using electricity. The water heater’s heat pump draws in ambient air, absorbs heat through a refrigerant, and transfers the heat to a tank.

The air surrounding this gadget needs to stay between 5 and 32 °C in order for it to function properly. This water heater is a challenging solution for smaller homes since it uses the surrounding air, which requires an air space of at least 1000 cubic feet.


The most economical kind of water heater is this one. It consists of a storage tank and solar collectors. Heat is absorbed by the solar collectors and then transferred to the heat exchanger in the heating tank via tubes.

In order to ensure that you have warm water even in the absence of sunlight, solar-powered water heaters frequently need a backup system. As a fallback option, you may always pair it with a tanked or tankless water heater system.

Condensing water heater

a model of water heater with excellent efficiency. A heat exchanger is used to further process the hot vapour that the unit creates. The water’s temperature is then raised as a result of the heat transfer.

Types of Fuel Sources

  • Electricity is a fuel type that is generally accessible throughout the nation. It works with the vast majority of water heater models that are sold today;
  • Fuel oil: Oil can be used to power indirect combination water and space heating systems as well as traditional storage water heaters. It’s less frequent and much more expensive.
  • The second most common fuel used by water heaters is natural gas. It is widely available in the UK, however all appliances that run on natural gas must adhere to installation guidelines.
  • LPG: Tanked or tankless water heating systems use this type of fuel. The only distinction between an LPG water heater and a gas model is that the former uses fuel from separate cylinders. LPG water heaters are subject to particular installation guidelines as well.
  • Geothermal energy: This fuel may be the best option for your home if you already have a ground loop system in place.

6 Modern Features of Water Heaters

  • Anti-scale: A few manufacturers equip their water heater models with anti-scale mechanisms. They prolong the life of your appliance by preventing hard buildup and mineral scale in your gadget by water swirling.
  • Energy efficiency: The energy labels on each device display the energy efficiency class. G is the least efficient, while A is the most efficient, in order of classification. You can install solar panels to achieve an efficiency rating of A.
  • Protection against dry fire: Certain types contain sensors that detect the absence of water in the area. Electricity to the heating elements is stopped by a dry fire prevention system until the tank reaches the necessary water level.
  • Electronic gas valves: These days, water heaters come with electronic gas valves that regulate how much gas is fed to the pilot on their own. Your smartphone can operate more fuel-efficiently and effectively thanks to this contemporary function.
  • With the help of intuitive technology, your water heater may become more efficient by adapting to your unique tastes and usage habits.
  • The concept of wireless control is based on the ability to link your water heater wirelessly, using Wi-Fi or 5G signals, to a smart device. You can communicate with your device as long as you have a strong connection and your smartphone. The ease of use and energy economy of this technology are its two greatest benefits.

Common Water Heater Problems to Watch Out For

  • A malfunctioning thermocouple or issues with the pilot light may be the cause of insufficient or nonexistent hot water;
  • The water smells. may be the outcome of bacterial overgrowth. The temperature of the water should constantly stay between 55 and 60 °C to maintain cleanliness and the absence of microorganisms;
  • Water tank noise. may arise from your water heater’s bottom burning silt. A broken heating element is another frequent issue;
  • Seepage. Regretfully, you will need to schedule a visit from a Gas Safe Registered engineer as soon as you notice a leak in your appliance. Take action as soon as you suspect a tank leak;

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